9 авг 2013    uruk 20130809

1.
NAME
2.
SYNOPSIS
3.
DESCRIPTION
4.
QUICK SETUP GUIDE
5.
GETTING STARTED
6.
LOADING A NEW rc FILE
7.
THE GORY DETAILS: uruk INTERNALS
8.
USING uruk-save AS THE INITSCRIPT BACKEND
9.
DEFAULT POLICY
10.
WARNING
11.
ENVIRONMENT
12.
SEE ALSO
13.
COPYRIGHT
14.
AUTHOR

NAME

uruk — wrapper for Linux iptables, for managing firewall rules

SYNOPSIS

uruk

DESCRIPTION

uruk loads an rc file (see uruk-rc(5)) which defines network service access policy, and invokes iptables(8) to set up firewall rules implementing this policy. By default the file /etc/uruk/rc is used; one can overrule this by specifying another file in the URUK_CONFIG environment variable. Under some circumstances, it's useful to use another command for iptables; this can be achieved by setting the URUK_IPTABLES (and/or URUK_IP6TABLES) environment variables. See uruk-rc(5) for details.

QUICK SETUP GUIDE

Uruk will not "just work" out of the box. It needs manual configuration. For those of you who don't like reading lots of documentation:
# cp /usr/share/doc/uruk/examples/rc \ /etc/uruk/rc # vi /etc/uruk/rc # urukctl start

GETTING STARTED

Once the uruk script is installed, you want to go use it, of course. We'll give a detailed description of what to do here.

First, create an rc file. See uruk-rc(5) for info on how to do this. Once this file is created and installed (this script looks in /etc/uruk/rc by default), you're ready to run uruk. You might want to test your rc file by running uruk in debug mode, see uruk-rc(5). There are at least 3 ways to load your rc file. We'll first describe a low level one: using vanilla iptables.

Vanilla iptables
After editing rc, load your rules like this. First flush your current rules:

# iptables -F # ip6tables -F
Then enable your rc rules
# uruk
. Inspect the rules by doing:
# iptables -L # ip6tables -L
. If you want to make these changes survive a reboot, use the init script as shipped with this package. If you'd rather write your own init script, the iptables-restore(8) and iptables-save(8) commands from the iptables package might be helpful.

Using the Uruk init script
Assumed is the Uruk init script is installed as explained in the README file. Optionally, install /etc/default/uruk (or /etc/sysconfig/uruk) and tweak it. An example file is in /usr/share/doc/uruk/examples/default (You might like to enable support for uruk-save.) Now activate uruk by doing:

# urukctl start
Now your pre-uruk iptables rules (if any) are saved as the "inactive" ruleset. While executing urukctl start, your box is open during a short while. If you don't like this, read below about uruk-save.

When rebooting, everything will be fine: /etc/init.d/uruk stores state in /var/lib/uruk/iptables, using iptables-save(8), which comes with Linux iptables.

Using Debian ifupdown
In case you have just one network interface which should get protected, you could use interfaces(5) from the Debian ifupdown package instead of the init script. Suppose you'd like to protect ppp0, and would like not to interfere with traffic on eth0: your other network interface. First write an rc file. Be sure it features

interfaces_unprotect="lo eth0"
Then run:
# mkdir -p /var/lib/uruk/iptables # iptables -F # iptables-save -c > /var/lib/uruk/iptables/down # uruk # iptables-save -c > /var/lib/uruk/iptables/up
Add
pre-up iptables-restore < /var/lib/uruk/iptables/up post-down iptables-restore < /var/lib/uruk/iptables/down
to your interfaces stanza, in your /etc/network/interfaces .

Similar tricks might be possible on GNU/Linux systems from other distributions. The author is interested.

LOADING A NEW rc FILE

Need to change your rules?

Using the Uruk init script
Do

# vi /etc/uruk/rc # urukctl force-reload
While executing urukctl force-reload, your box is open during a short while. If you don't like this, read below about uruk-save.

THE GORY DETAILS: uruk INTERNALS

The uruk script works like (and looks like) the list of statements below. Of course, take a look at /sbin/uruk for the final word on the workings.
1
rc is sourced as a shell script
2
Traffic on $interfaces_unprotect (just lo per default) is trusted:
$iptables -A INPUT -i $iface -j ACCEPT
3
$rc_a is sourced as a shell script, or, in case $rc_a is a directory, all files matching $rc_a/*.rc are sourced as shell scripts
4
ESTABLISHED and RELATED packets are ACCEPT-ed:
$iptables -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED \ -j ACCEPT
5
$rc_b is sourced
6
$interfaces gets protected against spoofing: we don't allow anyone to spoof non-routeable addresses. We block outgoing packets that don't have our address as source: they are either spoofed or something is misconfigured (NAT disabled, for instance). We want to be nice and don't send out garbage.
$iptables -A INPUT -i $iface --source $no_route_ip \ -j DROP
We drop all incoming packets which don't have us as destination:
$iptables -A OUTPUT -o $iface --source ! "$ip" \ -j DROP
And we always allow outgoing connections:
$iptables -A OUTPUT -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -o $iface \ -j ACCEPT
7
$rc_c is sourced
8
Allow traffic to offered services, from trusted sources:
$iptables -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate NEW \ -i $iface --protocol $proto --source "$source" \ --destination "$ip" --destination-port "$port" \ -j ACCEPT
9
$rc_d is sourced
10
Don't answer broadcast and multicast packets:
$iptables -A INPUT -i $iface --destination "$bcast" \ -j DROP
11
$rc_f is sourced
12
Explicitly allow a subset of the ICMP types. (We disallow all other traffic later.)
$iptables -A INPUT --protocol icmp --icmp-type $type \ -j ACCEPT
13
$rc_g is sourced
14
Log packets (which make it till here)
$iptables -A INPUT -j LOG --log-level debug \ --log-prefix 'iptables: '
15
$rc_h is sourced
16
Reject all other packets
$iptables -A INPUT -j REJECT
17
$rc_i is sourced

USING uruk-save AS THE INITSCRIPT BACKEND

By default, uruk-save is not used by the uruk init script. You might want to use it, though. The uruk-save script is faster and when using uruk-save, your box won't be open while loading new rules. But beware: uruk-save is not as robust as using uruk itself.

The script urukctl (and thus the uruk init script) will use uruk-save only if asked to do so in /etc/default/uruk (or /etc/sysconfig/uruk). If this file features

enable_uruk_save=true
uruk-save is used whenever appropriate. See uruk-save(8) for more details.

DEFAULT POLICY

By default, uruk drops packets which have unknown RFC 1918 private network addresses in their source or destination.

It rejects packets with source nor destination for one of our IPs.

Packets belonging to locally initiated sessions are allowed: we match state; the local host can act as a client for any remote service.

By default, uruk drops all ICMP packets (except those for interfaces in $interfaces_unprotect) with type other than

address-mask-reply
address-mask-request
destination-unreachable (this is a catch-all for a lot of types)
echo-request
echo-reply
parameter-problem (catch-all for ip-header-bad and required-option-missing)
timestamp-reply
timestamp-request
ttl-zero-during-transit
ttl-zero-during-reassembly

By default, the FORWARD chain is left untouched, so has policy ACCEPT. (This won't do much harm, since packet forwarding is disabled by default in the Linux kernel. However, if you don't mind being paranoid, you might want to add a

iptables --policy FORWARD REJECT
to your $rc_a uruk hook. See uruk-rc(5).)

By default, uruk logs all UDP and TCP packets which are blocked by the user defined policies. Loglevel is debug, logprefix is "iptables:". See also the notes on loglevel in uruk-rc(5).

Blocked TCP packets are answered with a tcp-reset.

WARNING

In order to keep the uruk script small and simple, the script does very little error handling. It does not check the contents of the rc file in any way before executing it. When your rc file contains bogus stuff, uruk will very likely behave in unexpected ways. Caveat emptor.

ENVIRONMENT

You can override some defaults in the shell before executing the uruk script. uruk honors the following variables:
"URUK_CONFIG" Full pathname of rc file; /etc/uruk/rc by default.
"URUK_IPTABLES" Full pathname of iptables executable. /sbin/iptables by default. Overrides iptables.
"URUK_IP6TABLES" Full pathname of ip6tables executable, for IPv6 support. Overrides ip6tables.
"URUK_INTERFACES_UNPROTECT" Default list of unprotected interfaces. Overrides interfaces_unprotect. The default default is lo.

SEE ALSO

uruk-rc(5), uruk-save(8). The Uruk homepage is at http://mdcc.cx/uruk/ .

iptables(8), iptables-save(8), iptables-restore(8), ip6tables(8), ip6tables-save(8), ip6tables-restore(8), http://www.netfilter.org/

interfaces(5), http://packages.debian.org/ifupdown.

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2003 Stichting LogReport Foundation logreport@logreport.org; Copyright (C) 2003, 2004 Tilburg University http://www.uvt.nl/; Copyright (C) 2003-2013 Joost van Baal-Ilić <joostvb-uruk@mdcc.cx>

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

AUTHOR

Joost van Baal-Ilić <joostvb-uruk@mdcc.cx>